___________________________________________________________
Outline 1. Classification of carpal instabilities
___________________________________________________________
Carpal instability dissociative (CID)
  Dorsiflexion (DISI)	
  Palmarflexion (VISI)
Carpal instability nondissociative (CIND)
  Radiocarpal
  Midcarpal
  Ulnar translocation
Carpal instability complex (CIC)
  Dorsal perilunate volar lunate dislocation
  Transscaphoid perilunate fracture dislocation
Carpal instability longitudinal (CIL)
  Axial ulnar (AU)
  Axial radial (AR)
  Axial ulnar-radial combined (AUR)
Severity of instability grade
  Dynamic instability (normal plain radiographs; diagnosis
    made on stress or motion studies or cineradiographs)
  Static (fixed) instability (seen on routine radiographs)
  Dislocation or fracture dislocation
___________________________________________________________
(Reproduced with permission from Amadio PC: Carpal
kinematics and instability: A clinical and anatomic primer.
Clin Anat 1991;4:1-12)
___________________________________________________________
Beaty, JH (ed): Orthopaedic Knowledge Update 6. Rosemont, IL. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 1999 Ch. 33, pp. 361-386.