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Table 1. Open fracture classification
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             Description of                     Condition of Soft    Fracture Pattern        Fracture
             Wound	                        Tissues                                      Contamination

Type I       1cm or less                        Minimal muscle	     Simple transverse or    None
                                                contusion            short oblique

Type II      >1cm, without	                Moderate muscle	     Simple transverse or    None
             extensive flaps or avulsion	crushing	     short oblique with 
                                                                     minimal communition

Type IIIA    Extensive laceration or            Extensive soft-	     Segmental fractures;    May be present
             flaps; tissue damage               gunshot injuries
             adequate soft-tissue               including skin and
             coverage of fracture               muscle with
             site or high-energy                crushing
             trauma regardless of               component
             the size of the wound

Type IIIB    Extensive soft-tissue	        Periosteal	     Extensive               Usually
             loss requiring	                stripping and	     communition             extensive
             secondary coverage                 exposed bone
             procedures

Type IIIC    Open fracture with
             arterial injury requiring repair
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Beaty, JH (ed): Orthopaedic Knowledge Update 6. Rosemont, IL. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 1999 Ch. 41, pp. 521-532.