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Table 1. Tests for specific knee ligament injuries
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Injured Ligament*        Key Test                    Secondary Test

ACL                      Lachman                     Pivot shift

MCL                      Valgus laxity at 30°

PCL                      Posterior drawer at 90°     Posterior sag at 90°

LCL                      Varus laxity at 30°

Posterolateral corner    Posterolateral drawer at    Posterolateral drawer at
                           30°                         90°
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* ACL, anterior cruciate ligament; MCL, medial collateral ligament; PCL,
posterior cruciate ligament; LCL, lateral collateral ligament
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Beaty, JH (ed): Orthopaedic Knowledge Update 6. Rosemont, IL. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 1999 Ch. 42, pp. 533-557.