Table 2. Muscle grading chart
Grade Muscle Action
0 = zero Total paralysis
1 = trace Visual or palpable contraction
2 = poor Active movement, gravity eliminated
3 = fair Active movement against gravity
4 = good Active movement against resistance
5 = normal Active movement against full resistance
(Reproduced with permission from Connolly P, Yuan HA:
Cervical spine fractures, in White AH (ed): Spine
Care: Diagnosis and Conservative Treatment. St.
Louis, MO, Mosby, 1995.)
Beaty, JH (ed): Orthopaedic Knowledge Update 6. Rosemont, IL. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 1999 Ch. 48, pp. 653-671.