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Table 2. Muscle grading chart
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Grade         Muscle Action

0 = zero      Total paralysis

1 = trace     Visual or palpable contraction

2 = poor      Active movement, gravity eliminated

3 = fair      Active movement against gravity

4 = good      Active movement against resistance

5 = normal    Active movement against full resistance
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(Reproduced with permission from Connolly P, Yuan HA:
Cervical spine fractures, in White AH (ed): Spine
Care: Diagnosis and Conservative Treatment. St.
Louis, MO, Mosby, 1995.)
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Beaty, JH (ed): Orthopaedic Knowledge Update 6. Rosemont, IL. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 1999 Ch. 48, pp. 653-671.