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Outline 1. Classification of spinal stenosis
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Congenital-developmental stenosis
  Idiopathic

  Achondroplastidc

Acquired stenosis

  Degenerative

    Central portion of spinal canal

    Peripheral portion canal, lateral recesses and nerve
    root canals (tunnels)

    Dengenerative spondylolisthesis

  Combined

    Any possible combinations of congenital-developmental
    stenosis, degenerative stenosis and herniations of the
    nucleus pulposus

  Spondylolisthetic, spondylolytic

  Iatrogenic

    Postlaminectomy

    Postfusion (anterior and posterior)

    Postchemonucleolysis

    Posttraumatic, late changes

  Miscellaneous

    Paget disease

    Fluorosis
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(Reproduced with permission from Arnoldi CC, Brodsky AE,
Cauchoix J, et al: Lumbar spinal stenosis and nerve
root entrapment syndrome: Difinition and classification.
Clin Orthop 1976;115:4-5.)
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Beaty, JH (ed): Orthopaedic Knowledge Update 6. Rosemont, IL. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 1999 Ch. 51, pp. 685-698.