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Table 1. Signs and symptoms in patients presenting with the four main symptom complexes of
spinal stenosis
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Radiculopathy      Chronic Canda Equina Syndrome*   Neurogenic Intermittent Claudication   Atypical leg Pain

Sciatica           Urinary/bowel incontinence       Pseudoclaudication                     Leg pain+

Low back pain      Urinary urgency/hesitancy        Low back pain                          Low back pain

Motor deficit      Low back pain                    Sciatica                               Tingling

Sensory deficit    Sciatica                         Motor deficit

Paresthesias                                        Sensory deficit

Weakness
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* The primary distinguishing symptom is listed at the top of the table.
+ Leg pain that is not typical of either radicular or neurogenic claudication. Distribution is
often diffuse, bizarre, and is nondermatomal.
(Reproduced with permission from Andersson GBJ, McNeill TW (eds): Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. St.
Louis, MO, CV Mosby, 1992.)
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Beaty, JH (ed): Orthopaedic Knowledge Update 6. Rosemont, IL. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 1999 Ch. 51, pp. 685-698.